Scientific management (known as Taylorism) has also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor`s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was only one best way to perform a particular task. It contributed to a shift in industrial production philosophies and led to a shift from skilled labor and piecework to a more modern approach to assembly lines and hourly wages. There are crucial differences between experts on the concept of job satisfaction. Basically, there are four approaches/theories of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is consistently correlated with sales. It could have been shown that employees who are dissatisfied with the job leave their employer as soon as possible. Thus, low job satisfaction increases sales and high job satisfaction reduces it. It is therefore negatively correlated with the fluctuation. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to achieve personal and organizational goals. Motivators are the aspects of work that drive people to perform and provide people with satisfaction, such as job performance, recognition, opportunities for advancement. Therefore, job satisfaction cannot be seen simply as a function of what a person receives from their work. Another important factor/variable that should be included to accurately predict job satisfaction is the strength of the individual`s desire for their aspiration level in a particular area.
This led to the development of the job satisfaction gap theory. A subordinate`s relationship with their supervisor is a very important aspect of the workplace. Therefore, a supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, kindness, and open lines of communication is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate, while a supervisor who is antisocial, hostile, and unwilling to communicate naturally receives negative feedback and very low job satisfaction from subordinates in the workplace. The higher the level of work, the greater the satisfaction of the individual. This is because high-ranking jobs have more prestige and self-control. This relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction stems from the theory of reference social groups, since our society values some jobs more than others. To apply Herzberg`s theory to practice, let`s start with hygiene problems. Although hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be addressed in the first place to create an environment where employee satisfaction and motivation are possible. Dissatisfied workers can express their satisfaction as shown in the figure below: Thus, the perception of justice generates job satisfaction, and the perception of inequality causes dissatisfaction.
Job satisfaction is also important in everyday life. Organizations have a significant impact on the people who work for them, and part of that impact is reflected in how people think about their work. This makes job satisfaction an issue of considerable importance to employers and employees. The latter theories focused more on the presence or absence of certain intrinsic and extrinsic employment factors that could determine satisfaction levels. Intrinsic factors are based on personal perceptions and inner feelings and include factors such as recognition, progress, and responsibility. According to O`Driscoll and Randall (1999), these factors are closely related to job satisfaction. When employees receive less than they expect or feel treated unfairly, dissatisfaction can occur. Conversely, overpay can also lead to dissatisfaction and the employee may feel guilty.
Compensation doesn`t have to be monetary, but compensation is usually the most visible and easy-to-change element of the outcome. Salary also has significance beyond monetary value and the potential to acquire tangible elements, and Grünberg (1979) notes that it is also an indication of personal success, organizational status, and recognition. Hoppock proposed one of the first definitions of job satisfaction when he described construction as a number of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that cause a person to express satisfaction with their job. Smith et al. (1969) defined job satisfaction as the feeling a person has about their work. Locke (1969) suggested that job satisfaction was a positive or pleasant response resulting from an evaluation of work, job performance or work experience. From a social interaction perspective, regulating employees` emotions during interpersonal encounters could provoke reactions from others, which in turn affect their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of positive responses to pleasant emotion could have a positive effect on job satisfaction The performance of emotional labor that leads to desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction. This helps to increase job satisfaction, because when the employee is praised for a good practical idea, they tend to pay more attention to their work in order to get more praise. If suggestions are neglected, the worker feels dissatisfied and over time, his creativity is destroyed. Emotional dissonance is a state of divergence between public manifestations of emotions and inner experiences of emotions, which often follows the process of regulating emotions. Emotional dissonance is associated with high levels of emotional exhaustion, low organizational engagement, and low job satisfaction.
It has been found that employees who are not satisfied with their work have a high turnover rate. Employees who are satisfied do not have a high turnover rate. Satisfaction is also negatively related to sales, but the correlation is stronger than what we found in absenteeism. Employee performance is a moderating factor in the satisfaction-sales relationship. One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), mainly attributed to Elton Mayo of Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (especially lighting) on worker productivity. These studies eventually showed that further changes in working conditions temporarily increase productivity (the so-called Hawthorne effect). When a person values a particular facet of a job, their satisfaction is more affected both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met) than those who do not value that facet of value.
An important model that limited the scope of disposition theory was the basic self-assessment model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. The judge held that there are four basic self-assessments that determine readiness for job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, place of control, and neuroticism.